Complications of uncontrolled Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease and it is managed by controlling the sugar level within the normal range. If any person suffering for diabetes is not taking treatment and managing diet properly, he is more susceptible for occurrence of severe complications due increased blood sugar level. There may be acute as well as chronic complications of the diabetes

Uncontrolled diabetes can become very dreadful and lead to multiple health problems. Diabetic can lead a normal life if they can keep their sugar level controlled. Complications related to diabetes may occur either because of too high blood sugar level or because of extremely low blood sugar level. The complications resulting due to high level of sugar in blood for a long period of time are known as chronic complications while those due to acute increase or decrease in the sugar level are known as acute complications.

Acute complications of diabetes

Diabetes can cause so many acute complications if the sugar level of a person is either increased or decreased acutely. Hypoglycemia, hyperosmolar and Ketoacidosis- the most common complication of diabetes state, heart attack, paralysis and stroke are some of the acute medical problems which can occur as acute complications. These are conditions when a patient needs emergency medical care and must be taken to hospital immediately.

Hypoclycemia is also known as low blood sugar, and in this condition the blood glucose level goes below 50miligrams/dl. This may be caused if a patient skips meals or takes overdose of insulin. A medicine which may reduce the glucose level or a disease related to liver or kidney may also lead to this complication.

Hyperosmolar state and Ketoacidosis are two acute emergencies which lead to pain in stomach and vomiting. Ketoacidosis is seen in patients of diabetes type1 who are on insulin. This is an abnormality in metabolism whereas hypersosmolar is state when the blood thickens up because of extremely high level of glucose in blood which may be as high as 600mgs./dl.

Another common complication of diabetes in which Coronary arteries of diabetic patients often get blocked partially or completely the supply of the blood is hampered and which may lead to death of some of the heart muscles. This may cause serious complications like heart failure and irregularity of heartbeats. This blockage of arteries can also hamper blood flow to brain causing brain stroke.

Chronic Complications of diabetes

Apart from the acute complications mentioned above diabetics can also cause many chronic complications related to heart, brain, kidneys, skin and the nervous system. If the sugar level of a person remains high for very long period then the blood vessels start getting damaged and lead to different complications. AGE or Advanced Glycation End products are the reason for all the complications resulting from diabetes.

High blood sugar level or hyperglycemia in diabetic patients leads to deposition of substances like calcium in the blood vessels which choke them and affect the flow of blood badly. This affected blood supply to all the organs leads to different cardiovascular complications of diabetes and artherosclerosis. Same happens with the heart when the blood supply is decreased. The person may feel chest discomfort, pain in chest and breathlessness. Some parts of brain start dying due to insufficient supply of oxygen and energy through blood.

Kidney is one of the most susceptible organs which is affected in chronic diabetes. Glomeruli in the kidneys start getting damaged because of the extra load on them. The body wants to get rid of the excess sugar and this happens with urine. Kidneys are over burdened and they start getting damaged over the period of time. Eye problems like glaucoma and cataract are very common complications of diabetics because of the damage to the blood vessels behind the retina. In some cases it may also lead to blindness eventually.

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