Know about Type I Diabetes or Juvenile Diabetes


This diabetes is also known as Type I diabetes or IDDM (Insulin Dependent Diabetes). This type of diabetes occurs in early stage of life usually in young people. It is caused due to destruction of insulin secreting cells of pancreas. Insulin is needed for entry of glucose in the skeletal muscles. Due to insulin deficiency, skeletal muscles can't utilize glucose which results in increased blood glucose.

Type1 diabetes is caused when the insulin producing cells start getting destroyed by the immune system of our own body. The insulin producing cells in pancreas are known as beta cells. The immune system usually fights against infection and foreign bodies like bacteria and virus but in this case the immune system starts destroying the body cells. The reasons for this are unknown but it leads to reduction in the insulin hormone level.

There is another type of diabetes known as secondary diabetes in which the beta cells are destroyed because of some other reasons like a surgery of pancreas or cystic fibrosis.

What is the role of Insulin in Type-1 Diabetes?


Insulin is a hormone secreted by pancreas in limited quantity and the glucose produced by digestion of food acts as stimulant for pancreases to produce insulin. Pancreas produces only the required amount of insulin because the role of insulin is just to move the glucose and other vita nutrients into the cells. These nutrients and the glucose are the main source of energy for cells to perform their functions.

Once the insulin has moved the glucose into the cells the level of sugar in the blood becomes low and this acts as signal for the beta cells in Pancreas to slow down the release of insulin. This makes sure that the sugar level in the blood does not drop too much to cause hypoglycemia.

When the immunity system starts destroying the Beta cells the process of glucose consumption and functioning of insulin is completely disturbed and it leads to Type1 diabetes eventually.
Lack of insulin increases the glucose level in blood because cells cannot consume it without insulin. Lack of glucose creates a state when the cells start starving without energy and their normal functions start getting hampered. Weakened cells mean weak tissues and organs. This is why high sugar level can cause many health problems.

Major health problems in Type- I Diabetes


When the sugar level increases in the blood the body gets signal to get rid of the excess sugar and this happens through urination. This frequent urge to urinate leads to loss of lot of water from the body and causes dehydration. Loss of sugar from the body through urine leads to weight loss.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis or DKA is another state in which the diabetic person suffers from acidity. This acidity is caused because of increased level of Ketones. When the cells do not get energy from the blood the body starts using the stored fat in the body. Breakage of fat and its metabolism not only consumes lot of energy and making the person feel tired but also releases acidic products called ketones. The lever also releases sugar to help the cells in meeting their energy needs and this leads to increase in sugar level again. This high sugar, ketones and dehydration together, cause building up of ketoacidosis. This can be a life threatening state and must be treated with immediate effect.

Prolonged diabetes damages blood vessels and nerves. This creates lot of problems in heart, eyes, kidneys and the arteries of a person may get hardened. Hardening of arteries affects blood flow to heart and brain and lead to heart attack or brain stroke.

People below 20 years of age have high risk of this disease but it can happen at any age. This is not very common and you can just find 1 person in America out of 250 to have this disease. Men and women have equal chance of getting diabetes of type1 and Black Americans have lesser chances of this diabetes than the whites.


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